Air Training Syllabus

Air Exercise


Standard Operating Procedures

At the outset of training, students are introduced to Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).  SOPs are cockpit co-ordination procedures required by Canadian Aviation Regulations in multi-crew commercial flight operations, whether they are Air Taxi, Commuter, or Airline.  SOPs consist primarily of memorized pilot procedures and verbal calls that are used repetitively at various phases of flight, and serve to maximize pilot awareness in the cockpit.  The SOPs applied in this Program are based on single-pilot commercial operations and closely correspond to the standards currently applied in commercial aviation.  SOPs are applied during all training flights.

Speed variation control

One of the most challenging features of converting to a multi-engine aircraft is the tremendous speed variations with which the pilot must now contend.  This exercise focuses on pilot control throughout the aircraft speed profile, including pilot compensation for the increased drag associated with flap extension and retraction, and gear extension and retraction.

Takeoffs and landings

Students are introduced in this exercise to the greater precision and control associated with multi-engine landings and takeoffs.  With respect to takeoffs, student learn how to present a proper cockpit takeoff briefing, including the actions to be taken by the crew in the event of an engine failure below V1, and the quite different actions to be taken if the engine failure occurs above V1.  Students also learn how to fly a prescribed departure profile containing published V2 and V3 speeds.  Included in this exercise is the higher performance Vx obstacle climb where aircraft climb performance exceeds 2000’ per minute.

Steep turns

The steep turn “switchback” is a flight test item, and students are introduced immediately in their training to the performance of switchback steep turns at both low speeds (90 MPH) and high speed (160 MPH).  The low speed turns are challenging because of the increase weight of the aircraft and the apparent resistance of the aircraft to control-input changes.  At higher speeds, the aircraft is more susceptible to undesired altitude and speed changes that result if the aircraft pitch is not produced and controlled with accuracy.  In both speed variations, smooth yet aggressive control inputs are emphasized here.

Vmc Demonstration

This exercise introduces students to the aerodynamic symptoms of a Vmc occurrence.  At a sufficiently safe altitude, one of the engines is brought to idle and the other engine is set to develop maximum power—simulating the conditions of flight most conducive to onset of Vmc occurrence.  By gradually reducing airspeed in this configurations, students experience first hand the control difficulties as Vmc is approached, as well as the corrective actions taken by the pilot and the effect these actions have on the aerodynamic behaviour of a multi-engine aircraft.


Stalls are a flight test item and students are required to demonstrate stalls both in a clean configuration—i.e., gear and flaps retracted—and in a landing configuration—gear and flaps extended.  Special consideration with respect to multi-engine stalls revolve around the pilot ensuring protection from Vmc—if full power is inadvertently applied when the aircraft speed is below Vmc, a multi-engine aircraft can enter spin autorotation as a consequence of “asymmetric thrust” generated by the powered engine.  Students in this exercise learn stall recovery techniques that eliminate the possibility of a Vmc occurrence, yet minimizes any loss of altitude.

Engine Failure—Cruise Flight

This is the first exercise in which students learn to manage engine failures during flight.  In response to a cruise engine failure, students learn to maintain safe and proper control of the aircraft and the procedures undertaken to remedy the cause of the failure.  This exercise is first conducted in the Flight Simulator, and then in the aircraft.

Engine Failure—Takeoff Roll

In this exercise students learn the possible consequences of an engine failure that occurs during the takeoff roll prior to V1 being reached.  During the takeoff roll the pilot of a multi-engine aircraft must always be ready to react immediately to the sudden failure of engine—if action is not taken immediately, the extreme yaw that is generated by the non-failed engine (if still set at maximum power) will cause such a sudden change in the aircraft’s direction that the aircraft can veer uncontrollably off the runway.  Students learn the various SOPs—prescribed checks during the takeoff roll that will minimize the risk of a pre-V1 engine failure, as well as learn the corrective action necessary to maintain directional control should an engine failure occur at this critical phase.  This exercise is first conducted in the Flight Simulator, and then in the aircraft.

Engine Failure—Overshoot

In this exercise students learn to manage an engine failure during an overshoot procedure, while the aircraft remains in an approach configuration—gear extended, flaps 40°, and airspeed 90 MPH.  The first priority once an engine fails is of course to keep the aircraft under control, but the target in the exercise focuses on producing a positive single-engine climb as quickly and as safely as possible.  Most multi-engine aircraft—certainly the Seneca—will climb satisfactory on one engine (given altitude, pressure, and temperature limitations), but to perform as published in the Pilot Operating Handbook, they must be “cleaned up” with the gear retracted, the flaps retracted, and the propeller of the failed engine feathered.  A common error is for the pilot to “climb away” prematurely, placing the aircraft in risk of a Vmc occurrence resulting from too low airspeed.  Timing in this exercise with respect to vital actions and precision pitch and yaw control is pivotal.  This exercise is first conducted in the Flight Simulator, and then in the aircraft.

Engine Failure—Single-engine landing

This exercise focuses on the special considerations that govern an approach and landing following an engine failure and shutdown.  With single-engine landings, the main consideration that governs the actions of the pilot is twofold.  Firstly, the pilot must ensure that, especially on the final phases of an approach, the power control inputs on the functioning engine do not become erratic with respect to managing the vertical placement of the aircraft along the glideslope—the need to apply power near the bottom of the approach in response to excess “sinking” would of course suddenly increase the risk of a Vmc occurrence.  Secondly, the pilot must ensure that the approach is conducted so as to avoid the need to conduct an overshoot—again owing to the increased risk of approaching Vmc.  The solution, of course, is effective planning in advance of a single-engine landing and this is what is emphasized in this exercise.  This exercise is first conducted in the Flight Simulator, and then in the aircraft.

High-level Multi-engine Flight Operations.  (Optional)


This flight introduces students to the operational procedures and considerations associated with a high-level commercial flight in a multi-engine aircraft.  The exercise revolves around a cross-country flight from Langley Airport to Calgary International Airport.  The flight is conducted under an IFR Flight Plan, and instruction revolves around the practical use of supplemental oxygen and turbocharger operations.  Successful completion of this exercise leads to eligibility for Langley Flying School’s Certificate of Qualification—Oxygen and Turbocharger Systems.